Before the arrival of Americans, California was home to numerous Native American tribes, including the Chumash, Tongva, and Miwok, among others. These indigenous peoples had rich, diverse cultures and livelihoods, deeply interwoven with the land and its resources. Spanish explorers and missionaries arrived in the 16th and 17th centuries, establishing missions and bringing significant changes. Later, in the 19th century, the Gold Rush attracted people from around the world. Thus, California's history is a tapestry of diverse cultures living, intermingling, and changing over time.